Among the best known is the Hope Diamond. It should be noted that sapphire and ruby are the same stone, physically and chemically. The red variety is called ruby, while the equally popular blue is called sapphire.
Diamond Certificate Sample (Actual Certificate Hasn't Been Scanned Yet)
Explanation of Cut, Color and Clarity of This Diamond
Cut Quality Ideal cut refers to the angles and proportions of a diamond that satisfy very precise mathematical formulas. The result is that the the ideal cut diamond internally reflects most light from one mirror-like facet to another and disperse and reflect it through the top of the stone. This results in a display of brilliance and fire, thereby placing ideal-cut diamonds higher on the quality pyramid than deep or shallow-cut diamonds.
Color E color diamonds are virtually colorless. E color grade is very rare. The naked eye will not detect any presence of color. E color grade is indistinguishable from D without instrumentation.
Clarity VS1 clarity diamonds are very slightly included grade one. VS1 diamonds are less expensive than the VVS1 or VVS2 grades and present an excellent value. They have minor inclusions that are bigger and more noticeable than in higher clarity grades, but they are only visible at 10x magnification. To the naked eye, these diamonds will appear unblemished.